In this final part, part 6, of the series on Tummyrite™ I introduce the components in Tummyrite™ to assist the birds to develop their own natural immunity against disease challenges (objective 4) and to enhance the bird’s natural gut microflora by providing the necessary substrates for these favourable microflora to flourish (objective5). In both these objectives Tummyrite™ products have a positive impact on the bird’s health and wellbeing. I also summarise the five (5) objectives of the Tummyrite™ and Tummyrite™ +Plus products.
OBJECTIVE 4 - To assist the birds to develop their own natural immunity against disease challenges.
Immunity Booster – YFF contains β-Glucans 1-3,1-6 contains purify β-glucans that stimulate the endothelial reticulum. The endothelial reticulum produces high quantities of macrophages that play a key role in the immunological system. The stimulated macrophages will naturally produce cytokines. The cytokines will trigger a chain reaction inducing to a higher immune status on birds making them able to fight against opportunistic infections. The macrophage function is to absorb and destroy the invading particles of phagocytosis.
Objective 5 - To enhance the bird’s natural gut microflora by providing the necessary substrates for these favourable microflora to flourish.
Creating a favourable gut environment is important for health and wellbeing of the birds. Prebiotic products such as yeast functional fibres (MOS) and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) act as nutrient sources for the favourable micro-flora, and which are not digested by the birds, help to maintain an active gut micro-flora population. These ensure the proper functioning of the gut and assist in excluding pathogenic bacteria by mutual exclusion (see later).
They also provide an acidic environment by microbial degradation of prebiotic carbohydrates resulting in the accumulation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) (mainly acetate, propionate, butyrate) and which coincides with a lowering of the gut pH. This is important for excluding pathogenic bacteria and activating some important enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. SCFA may serve as contributing extra energy to the host bird.
According to the latest definition, a prebiotic is a non-viable food component that confers a health benefit on the host associated with modulation of the microbiota (FAO, 2007). This defines prebiotics as food-grade components that deliver a measurable benefit to the host through the modulation of the microbiota. A prerequisite for prebiotics is that they neither be fermented nor absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. Our aim is to encourage the growth of favourable microbiota already present in the birds rather than flood the bird’s GIT with foreign microbiota.
What are the consequences of developing of developing a favourable population of gut microflora? What is their mode of action?
There three possible modes of action of developing a favourable gut microflora.
- Competitive exclusion.
- Bacterial antagonism.
- Immune modulation (Objective 4)
Micro-organisms compete with one another for food sources (mainly carbon and energy). Favourable microorganisms will compete with pathogen microorganisms for these food sources.
The provision of a food source such as XOS that acts as a food source for the favourable Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Pediococcus or Enterococcus and assist in their proliferation. XOS is not readily used by the pathogenic bacteria as shown from laboratory studies.
As the number of favourable organisms multiplies in the gut they block receptor sites and prevent the attachment of other bacteria, including pathogenic organisms such as pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella.
Many favourable bacteria, once established, product substances which are bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties (bacteriocins) such as lactoferrin, lysozyme, hydrogen peroxide and a number of organic acids.
These substances have a harmful effect on pathogenic bacteria which act by lowering the gut pH.
Competition for nutrients between favourable and pathogenic bacteria.
The stimulation of enzymes, activation of macrophages and anti-tumour activity associated with favourable microorganisms may contribute to the health status of the host bird.
The GIT represents a major immune organ in birds. There is a distinct interaction between the gut microflora and the immune system. The development of a favourable gut microflora is largely responsible for the development and activation of the humoral and cellular gut-associated immune system. Microbiota communities can support the bird’s defence against invading pathogens by stimulating gastrointestinal immune response. As we have already discussed cell walls from yeasts may promote the activity of macrophages or induce systemic immune response.
Prebiotics and their effect on gut morphology
Several scientific studies in Poultry have shown the positive influence of prebiotics on gut morphology. Supplementation in broiler diets showed an increase in villus height in the ileum and crypt depth in the jejunum and caecum, (Xu et al, 2003). Xu et al, 2003 suggested that the morphological changes may be attributed to the ability of the prebiotics to create a beneficial gut environment rather than to a direct effect of prebiotics on the gut tissue.
Summary of the objectives behind TUMMYRITE™ Products
There are five main objectives behind TUMMYRITE™ Products
- To improve the digestibility and utilisation of the main components of the food of graniverous birds i.e. seed grains.
- To provide some key nutrients that are not provided in many of the main feed components fed to birds.
- Provide some components, such as herbs and yeast functional fibres which have anti-microbial and binding actions to reduce pathogen numbers and thereby reduce the disease challenge to birds.
- To assist the birds to develop their own natural immunity against disease challenges.
- To enhance the bird’s natural gut microflora by providing the necessary substrates for these favourable microflora to flourish.